Class FTP

  • All Implemented Interfaces:
    java.lang.Cloneable

    public class FTP
    extends Task
    Basic FTP client. Performs the following actions:
    • send - send files to a remote server. This is the default action.
    • get - retrieve files from a remote server.
    • del - delete files from a remote server.
    • list - create a file listing.
    • chmod - change unix file permissions.
    • rmdir - remove directories, if empty, from a remote server.
    Note: Some FTP servers - notably the Solaris server - seem to hold data ports open after a "retr" operation, allowing them to timeout instead of shutting them down cleanly. This happens in active or passive mode, and the ports will remain open even after ending the FTP session. FTP "send" operations seem to close ports immediately. This behavior may cause problems on some systems when downloading large sets of files.
    Since:
    Ant 1.3
    • Nested Class Summary

      Nested Classes 
      Modifier and Type Class Description
      static class  FTP.Action
      an action to perform, one of "send", "put", "recv", "get", "del", "delete", "list", "mkdir", "chmod", "rmdir"
      protected class  FTP.FTPDirectoryScanner
      internal class allowing to read the contents of a remote file system using the FTP protocol used in particular for ftp get operations differences with DirectoryScanner "" (the root of the fileset) is never included in the included directories followSymlinks defaults to false
      protected static class  FTP.FTPFileProxy
      internal class providing a File-like interface to some of the information available from the FTP server
      static class  FTP.FTPSystemType
      one of the valid system type keys recognized by the systemTypeKey attribute.
      static class  FTP.Granularity
      represents one of the valid timestamp adjustment values recognized by the timestampGranularity attribute.
      static class  FTP.LanguageCode
      Enumerated class for languages.
    • Constructor Summary

      Constructors 
      Constructor Description
      FTP()  
    • Method Summary

      All Methods Instance Methods Abstract Methods Concrete Methods Deprecated Methods 
      Modifier and Type Method Description
      void addFileset​(FileSet set)
      A set of files to upload or download
      protected void checkAttributes()
      Checks to see that all required parameters are set.
      protected void createParents​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp, java.lang.String filename)
      Creates all parent directories specified in a complete relative pathname.
      protected void delFile​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp, java.lang.String filename)
      Delete a file from the remote host.
      protected void doSiteCommand​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp, java.lang.String theCMD)
      Sends a site command to the ftp server
      void execute()
      Runs the task.
      protected void executeRetryable​(RetryHandler h, Retryable r, java.lang.String descr)
      Executable a retryable object.
      java.lang.String getDefaultDateFormatConfig()  
      protected void getFile​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp, java.lang.String dir, java.lang.String filename)
      Retrieve a single file from the remote host.
      java.lang.String getRecentDateFormatConfig()  
      java.lang.String getServerLanguageCodeConfig()  
      java.lang.String getServerTimeZoneConfig()  
      java.lang.String getShortMonthNamesConfig()  
      java.lang.String getSystemTypeKey()  
      protected boolean isUpToDate​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp, java.io.File localFile, java.lang.String remoteFile)
      Checks to see if the remote file is current as compared with the local file.
      protected void listFile​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp, java.io.BufferedWriter bw, java.lang.String filename)
      List information about a single file from the remote host.
      void log​(java.lang.String msg, int level)  
      protected void makeRemoteDir​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp, java.lang.String dir)
      Create the specified directory on the remote host.
      protected java.lang.String resolveFile​(java.lang.String file)
      Correct a file path to correspond to the remote host requirements.
      protected void rmDir​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp, java.lang.String dirname)
      Delete a directory, if empty, from the remote host.
      protected void sendFile​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp, java.lang.String dir, java.lang.String filename)
      Sends a single file to the remote host.
      void setAccount​(java.lang.String pAccount)
      Sets the login account to use on the specified server.
      void setAction​(java.lang.String action)
      Deprecated.
      since 1.5.x.
      void setAction​(FTP.Action action)
      Sets the FTP action to be taken.
      void setBinary​(boolean binary)
      If true, uses binary mode, otherwise text mode (default is binary).
      void setChmod​(java.lang.String theMode)
      Sets the file permission mode (Unix only) for files sent to the server.
      void setDataTimeout​(int dataTimeout)
      Sets the timeout on the data connection in milliseconds.
      void setDefaultDateFormatConfig​(java.lang.String defaultDateFormat)
      Sets the defaultDateFormatConfig attribute.
      void setDepends​(boolean depends)
      Set to true to transmit only files that are new or changed from their remote counterparts.
      void setEnableRemoteVerification​(boolean b)
      Whether to verify that data and control connections are connected to the same remote host.
      void setIgnoreNoncriticalErrors​(boolean ignoreNoncriticalErrors)
      set the flag to skip errors on directory creation.
      void setInitialSiteCommand​(java.lang.String initialCommand)
      Sets the initialSiteCommand attribute.
      void setListing​(java.io.File listing)
      The output file for the "list" action.
      void setNewer​(boolean newer)
      A synonym for depends.
      void setPassive​(boolean passive)
      Specifies whether to use passive mode.
      void setPassword​(java.lang.String password)
      Sets the login password for the given user id.
      void setPort​(int port)
      Sets the FTP port used by the remote server.
      void setPreserveLastModified​(boolean preserveLastModified)
      Set to true to preserve modification times for "gotten" files.
      void setRecentDateFormatConfig​(java.lang.String recentDateFormat)
      Sets the recentDateFormatConfig attribute.
      void setRemotedir​(java.lang.String dir)
      Sets the remote directory where files will be placed.
      void setRetriesAllowed​(java.lang.String retriesAllowed)
      Defines how many times to retry executing FTP command before giving up.
      void setSeparator​(java.lang.String separator)
      Sets the remote file separator character.
      void setServer​(java.lang.String server)
      Sets the FTP server to send files to.
      void setServerLanguageCodeConfig​(FTP.LanguageCode serverLanguageCode)
      Sets the serverLanguageCode attribute.
      void setServerTimeZoneConfig​(java.lang.String serverTimeZoneId)
      Sets the serverTimeZoneConfig attribute.
      void setShortMonthNamesConfig​(java.lang.String shortMonthNames)
      Sets the shortMonthNamesConfig attribute
      void setSiteCommand​(java.lang.String siteCommand)
      Sets the siteCommand attribute.
      void setSkipFailedTransfers​(boolean skipFailedTransfers)
      If true, enables unsuccessful file put, delete and get operations to be skipped with a warning and the remainder of the files still transferred.
      void setSystemTypeKey​(FTP.FTPSystemType systemKey)
      Sets the systemTypeKey attribute.
      void setTimeDiffAuto​(boolean timeDiffAuto)
      "true" to find out automatically the time difference between local and remote machine.
      void setTimeDiffMillis​(long timeDiffMillis)
      number of milliseconds to add to the time on the remote machine to get the time on the local machine.
      void setTimestampGranularity​(FTP.Granularity timestampGranularity)
      Sets the timestampGranularity attribute
      void setUmask​(java.lang.String theUmask)
      Sets the default mask for file creation on a unix server.
      void setUserid​(java.lang.String userid)
      Sets the login user id to use on the specified server.
      void setVerbose​(boolean verbose)
      Set to true to receive notification about each file as it is transferred.
      void setWakeUpTransferInterval​(int wakeUpTransferInterval)
      Sets the time interval when we should automatically call a command triggering a transfer The parameter is in seconds
      protected void transferFiles​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp)
      Sends all files specified by the configured filesets to the remote server.
      protected int transferFiles​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp, FileSet fs)
      For each file in the fileset, do the appropriate action: send, get, delete, or list.
      • Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object

        equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait
    • Constructor Detail

      • FTP

        public FTP()
    • Method Detail

      • setRemotedir

        public void setRemotedir​(java.lang.String dir)
        Sets the remote directory where files will be placed. This may be a relative or absolute path, and must be in the path syntax expected by the remote server. No correction of path syntax will be performed.
        Parameters:
        dir - the remote directory name.
      • setServer

        public void setServer​(java.lang.String server)
        Sets the FTP server to send files to.
        Parameters:
        server - the remote server name.
      • setPort

        public void setPort​(int port)
        Sets the FTP port used by the remote server.
        Parameters:
        port - the port on which the remote server is listening.
      • setUserid

        public void setUserid​(java.lang.String userid)
        Sets the login user id to use on the specified server.
        Parameters:
        userid - remote system userid.
      • setPassword

        public void setPassword​(java.lang.String password)
        Sets the login password for the given user id.
        Parameters:
        password - the password on the remote system.
      • setAccount

        public void setAccount​(java.lang.String pAccount)
        Sets the login account to use on the specified server.
        Parameters:
        pAccount - the account name on remote system
        Since:
        Ant 1.7
      • setBinary

        public void setBinary​(boolean binary)
        If true, uses binary mode, otherwise text mode (default is binary).
        Parameters:
        binary - if true use binary mode in transfers.
      • setPassive

        public void setPassive​(boolean passive)
        Specifies whether to use passive mode. Set to true if you are behind a firewall and cannot connect without it. Passive mode is disabled by default.
        Parameters:
        passive - true is passive mode should be used.
      • setVerbose

        public void setVerbose​(boolean verbose)
        Set to true to receive notification about each file as it is transferred.
        Parameters:
        verbose - true if verbose notifications are required.
      • setNewer

        public void setNewer​(boolean newer)
        A synonym for depends. Set to true to transmit only new or changed files. See the related attributes timediffmillis and timediffauto.
        Parameters:
        newer - if true only transfer newer files.
      • setTimeDiffMillis

        public void setTimeDiffMillis​(long timeDiffMillis)
        number of milliseconds to add to the time on the remote machine to get the time on the local machine. use in conjunction with newer
        Parameters:
        timeDiffMillis - number of milliseconds
        Since:
        ant 1.6
      • setTimeDiffAuto

        public void setTimeDiffAuto​(boolean timeDiffAuto)
        "true" to find out automatically the time difference between local and remote machine. This requires right to create and delete a temporary file in the remote directory.
        Parameters:
        timeDiffAuto - true = find automatically the time diff
        Since:
        ant 1.6
      • setPreserveLastModified

        public void setPreserveLastModified​(boolean preserveLastModified)
        Set to true to preserve modification times for "gotten" files.
        Parameters:
        preserveLastModified - if true preserver modification times.
      • setDepends

        public void setDepends​(boolean depends)
        Set to true to transmit only files that are new or changed from their remote counterparts. The default is to transmit all files.
        Parameters:
        depends - if true only transfer newer files.
      • setSeparator

        public void setSeparator​(java.lang.String separator)
        Sets the remote file separator character. This normally defaults to the Unix standard forward slash, but can be manually overridden using this call if the remote server requires some other separator. Only the first character of the string is used.
        Parameters:
        separator - the file separator on the remote system.
      • setChmod

        public void setChmod​(java.lang.String theMode)
        Sets the file permission mode (Unix only) for files sent to the server.
        Parameters:
        theMode - unix style file mode for the files sent to the remote system.
      • setUmask

        public void setUmask​(java.lang.String theUmask)
        Sets the default mask for file creation on a unix server.
        Parameters:
        theUmask - unix style umask for files created on the remote server.
      • addFileset

        public void addFileset​(FileSet set)
        A set of files to upload or download
        Parameters:
        set - the set of files to be added to the list of files to be transferred.
      • setAction

        @Deprecated
        public void setAction​(java.lang.String action)
                       throws BuildException
        Deprecated.
        since 1.5.x. setAction(String) is deprecated and is replaced with setAction(FTP.Action) to make Ant's Introspection mechanism do the work and also to encapsulate operations on the type in its own class.
        Sets the FTP action to be taken. Currently accepts "put", "get", "del", "mkdir", "chmod", "list", and "site".
        Parameters:
        action - the FTP action to be performed.
        Throws:
        BuildException - if the action is not a valid action.
      • setAction

        public void setAction​(FTP.Action action)
                       throws BuildException
        Sets the FTP action to be taken. Currently accepts "put", "get", "del", "mkdir", "chmod", "list", and "site".
        Parameters:
        action - the FTP action to be performed.
        Throws:
        BuildException - if the action is not a valid action.
      • setListing

        public void setListing​(java.io.File listing)
        The output file for the "list" action. This attribute is ignored for any other actions.
        Parameters:
        listing - file in which to store the listing.
      • setSkipFailedTransfers

        public void setSkipFailedTransfers​(boolean skipFailedTransfers)
        If true, enables unsuccessful file put, delete and get operations to be skipped with a warning and the remainder of the files still transferred.
        Parameters:
        skipFailedTransfers - true if failures in transfers are ignored.
      • setIgnoreNoncriticalErrors

        public void setIgnoreNoncriticalErrors​(boolean ignoreNoncriticalErrors)
        set the flag to skip errors on directory creation. (and maybe later other server specific errors)
        Parameters:
        ignoreNoncriticalErrors - true if non-critical errors should not cause a failure.
      • setSystemTypeKey

        public void setSystemTypeKey​(FTP.FTPSystemType systemKey)
        Sets the systemTypeKey attribute. Method for setting FTPClientConfig remote system key.
        Parameters:
        systemKey - the key to be set - BUT if blank the default value of null (which signifies "autodetect") will be kept.
        See Also:
        FTPClientConfig
      • setDefaultDateFormatConfig

        public void setDefaultDateFormatConfig​(java.lang.String defaultDateFormat)
        Sets the defaultDateFormatConfig attribute.
        Parameters:
        defaultDateFormat - configuration to be set, unless it is null or empty string, in which case ignored.
        See Also:
        FTPClientConfig
      • setRecentDateFormatConfig

        public void setRecentDateFormatConfig​(java.lang.String recentDateFormat)
        Sets the recentDateFormatConfig attribute.
        Parameters:
        recentDateFormat - configuration to be set, unless it is null or empty string, in which case ignored.
        See Also:
        FTPClientConfig
      • setServerLanguageCodeConfig

        public void setServerLanguageCodeConfig​(FTP.LanguageCode serverLanguageCode)
        Sets the serverLanguageCode attribute.
        Parameters:
        serverLanguageCode - configuration to be set, unless it is null or empty string, in which case ignored.
        See Also:
        FTPClientConfig
      • setServerTimeZoneConfig

        public void setServerTimeZoneConfig​(java.lang.String serverTimeZoneId)
        Sets the serverTimeZoneConfig attribute.
        Parameters:
        serverTimeZoneId - configuration to be set, unless it is null or empty string, in which case ignored.
        See Also:
        FTPClientConfig
      • setShortMonthNamesConfig

        public void setShortMonthNamesConfig​(java.lang.String shortMonthNames)
        Sets the shortMonthNamesConfig attribute
        Parameters:
        shortMonthNames - configuration to be set, unless it is null or empty string, in which case ignored.
        See Also:
        FTPClientConfig
      • setRetriesAllowed

        public void setRetriesAllowed​(java.lang.String retriesAllowed)
        Defines how many times to retry executing FTP command before giving up. Default is 0 - try once and if failure then give up.
        Parameters:
        retriesAllowed - number of retries to allow. -1 means keep trying forever. "forever" may also be specified as a synonym for -1.
      • getSystemTypeKey

        public java.lang.String getSystemTypeKey()
        Returns:
        Returns the systemTypeKey.
      • getDefaultDateFormatConfig

        public java.lang.String getDefaultDateFormatConfig()
        Returns:
        Returns the defaultDateFormatConfig.
      • getRecentDateFormatConfig

        public java.lang.String getRecentDateFormatConfig()
        Returns:
        Returns the recentDateFormatConfig.
      • getServerLanguageCodeConfig

        public java.lang.String getServerLanguageCodeConfig()
        Returns:
        Returns the serverLanguageCodeConfig.
      • getServerTimeZoneConfig

        public java.lang.String getServerTimeZoneConfig()
        Returns:
        Returns the serverTimeZoneConfig.
      • getShortMonthNamesConfig

        public java.lang.String getShortMonthNamesConfig()
        Returns:
        Returns the shortMonthNamesConfig.
      • setTimestampGranularity

        public void setTimestampGranularity​(FTP.Granularity timestampGranularity)
        Sets the timestampGranularity attribute
        Parameters:
        timestampGranularity - The timestampGranularity to set.
      • setSiteCommand

        public void setSiteCommand​(java.lang.String siteCommand)
        Sets the siteCommand attribute. This attribute names the command that will be executed if the action is "site".
        Parameters:
        siteCommand - The siteCommand to set.
      • setInitialSiteCommand

        public void setInitialSiteCommand​(java.lang.String initialCommand)
        Sets the initialSiteCommand attribute. This attribute names a site command that will be executed immediately after connection.
        Parameters:
        initialCommand - The initialSiteCommand to set.
      • setEnableRemoteVerification

        public void setEnableRemoteVerification​(boolean b)
        Whether to verify that data and control connections are connected to the same remote host.
        Parameters:
        b - boolean
        Since:
        Ant 1.8.0
      • setDataTimeout

        public void setDataTimeout​(int dataTimeout)
        Sets the timeout on the data connection in milliseconds. Any negative value is discarded and leaves the default A value of 0 means an infinite timeout
        Parameters:
        dataTimeout - int
        Since:
        Ant 1.10.7
      • setWakeUpTransferInterval

        public void setWakeUpTransferInterval​(int wakeUpTransferInterval)
        Sets the time interval when we should automatically call a command triggering a transfer The parameter is in seconds
        Parameters:
        wakeUpTransferInterval - int
        Since:
        Ant 1.10.7
      • checkAttributes

        protected void checkAttributes()
                                throws BuildException
        Checks to see that all required parameters are set.
        Throws:
        BuildException - if the configuration is not valid.
      • executeRetryable

        protected void executeRetryable​(RetryHandler h,
                                        Retryable r,
                                        java.lang.String descr)
                                 throws java.io.IOException
        Executable a retryable object.
        Parameters:
        h - the retry handler.
        r - the object that should be retried until it succeeds or the number of retries is reached.
        descr - a description of the command that is being run.
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException - if there is a problem.
      • transferFiles

        protected int transferFiles​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp,
                                    FileSet fs)
                             throws java.io.IOException,
                                    BuildException
        For each file in the fileset, do the appropriate action: send, get, delete, or list.
        Parameters:
        ftp - the FTPClient instance used to perform FTP actions
        fs - the fileset on which the actions are performed.
        Returns:
        the number of files to be transferred.
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException - if there is a problem reading a file
        BuildException - if there is a problem in the configuration.
      • transferFiles

        protected void transferFiles​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp)
                              throws java.io.IOException,
                                     BuildException
        Sends all files specified by the configured filesets to the remote server.
        Parameters:
        ftp - the FTPClient instance used to perform FTP actions
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException - if there is a problem reading a file
        BuildException - if there is a problem in the configuration.
      • resolveFile

        protected java.lang.String resolveFile​(java.lang.String file)
        Correct a file path to correspond to the remote host requirements. This implementation currently assumes that the remote end can handle Unix-style paths with forward-slash separators. This can be overridden with the separator task parameter. No attempt is made to determine what syntax is appropriate for the remote host.
        Parameters:
        file - the remote file name to be resolved
        Returns:
        the filename as it will appear on the server.
      • createParents

        protected void createParents​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp,
                                     java.lang.String filename)
                              throws java.io.IOException,
                                     BuildException
        Creates all parent directories specified in a complete relative pathname. Attempts to create existing directories will not cause errors.
        Parameters:
        ftp - the FTP client instance to use to execute FTP actions on the remote server.
        filename - the name of the file whose parents should be created.
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException - under non documented circumstances
        BuildException - if it is impossible to cd to a remote directory
      • isUpToDate

        protected boolean isUpToDate​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp,
                                     java.io.File localFile,
                                     java.lang.String remoteFile)
                              throws java.io.IOException,
                                     BuildException
        Checks to see if the remote file is current as compared with the local file. Returns true if the target file is up to date.
        Parameters:
        ftp - ftpclient
        localFile - local file
        remoteFile - remote file
        Returns:
        true if the target file is up to date
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException - in unknown circumstances
        BuildException - if the date of the remote files cannot be found and the action is GET_FILES
      • doSiteCommand

        protected void doSiteCommand​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp,
                                     java.lang.String theCMD)
                              throws java.io.IOException,
                                     BuildException
        Sends a site command to the ftp server
        Parameters:
        ftp - ftp client
        theCMD - command to execute
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException - in unknown circumstances
        BuildException - in unknown circumstances
      • sendFile

        protected void sendFile​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp,
                                java.lang.String dir,
                                java.lang.String filename)
                         throws java.io.IOException,
                                BuildException
        Sends a single file to the remote host. filename may contain a relative path specification. When this is the case, sendFile will attempt to create any necessary parent directories before sending the file. The file will then be sent using the entire relative path spec - no attempt is made to change directories. It is anticipated that this may eventually cause problems with some FTP servers, but it simplifies the coding.
        Parameters:
        ftp - ftp client
        dir - base directory of the file to be sent (local)
        filename - relative path of the file to be send locally relative to dir remotely relative to the remotedir attribute
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException - in unknown circumstances
        BuildException - in unknown circumstances
      • delFile

        protected void delFile​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp,
                               java.lang.String filename)
                        throws java.io.IOException,
                               BuildException
        Delete a file from the remote host.
        Parameters:
        ftp - ftp client
        filename - file to delete
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException - in unknown circumstances
        BuildException - if skipFailedTransfers is set to false and the deletion could not be done
      • rmDir

        protected void rmDir​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp,
                             java.lang.String dirname)
                      throws java.io.IOException,
                             BuildException
        Delete a directory, if empty, from the remote host.
        Parameters:
        ftp - ftp client
        dirname - directory to delete
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException - in unknown circumstances
        BuildException - if skipFailedTransfers is set to false and the deletion could not be done
      • getFile

        protected void getFile​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp,
                               java.lang.String dir,
                               java.lang.String filename)
                        throws java.io.IOException,
                               BuildException
        Retrieve a single file from the remote host. filename may contain a relative path specification.

        The file will then be retrieved using the entire relative path spec - no attempt is made to change directories. It is anticipated that this may eventually cause problems with some FTP servers, but it simplifies the coding.

        Parameters:
        ftp - the ftp client
        dir - local base directory to which the file should go back
        filename - relative path of the file based upon the ftp remote directory and/or the local base directory (dir)
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException - in unknown circumstances
        BuildException - if skipFailedTransfers is false and the file cannot be retrieved.
      • listFile

        protected void listFile​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp,
                                java.io.BufferedWriter bw,
                                java.lang.String filename)
                         throws java.io.IOException,
                                BuildException
        List information about a single file from the remote host. filename may contain a relative path specification.

        The file listing will then be retrieved using the entire relative path spec - no attempt is made to change directories. It is anticipated that this may eventually cause problems with some FTP servers, but it simplifies the coding.

        Parameters:
        ftp - ftp client
        bw - buffered writer
        filename - the directory one wants to list
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException - in unknown circumstances
        BuildException - in unknown circumstances
      • makeRemoteDir

        protected void makeRemoteDir​(org.apache.commons.net.ftp.FTPClient ftp,
                                     java.lang.String dir)
                              throws java.io.IOException,
                                     BuildException
        Create the specified directory on the remote host.
        Parameters:
        ftp - The FTP client connection
        dir - The directory to create (format must be correct for host type)
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException - in unknown circumstances
        BuildException - if ignoreNoncriticalErrors has not been set to true and a directory could not be created, for instance because it was already existing. Precisely, the codes 521, 550 and 553 will trigger a BuildException
      • log

        public abstract void log​(java.lang.String msg,
                                 int level)