Multiple Resolvers

This tutorial is an example of how modules can be retrieved by multiple resolvers. Using multiple resolvers can be useful in many contexts. For example:

  • separating integration builds from releases

  • using a public repository for third party modules and a private one for internal modules

  • use a repository for storing modules which are not accurate in an unmanaged public repository

  • use a local repository to expose builds made on one developer’s station

In Ivy, the use of multiple resolvers is supported by a compound resolver called the chain resolver.

In our example, we will simply show you how to use two resolvers, one for a local repository and one using the Maven 2 repository.

Project Description

The project: chained-resolvers

The project is very simple and contains only one simple class: example.Hello.

It depends on two libraries: Apache’s commons-lang and a custom library named test (sources are included in test-1.0.jar file). The test library is used by the project to uppercase a string, and commons-lang is used to capitalize the same string.

Here is the content of the project:

  • build.xml: the Ant build file for the project

  • ivy.xml: the Ivy project file

  • src/example/Hello.java: the only class of the project

Let’s have a look at the ivy.xml file:

<!--
   Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
   or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
   distributed with this work for additional information
   regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
   to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
   "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
   with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at

     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

   Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
   software distributed under the License is distributed on an
   "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
   KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
   specific language governing permissions and limitations
   under the License.
-->
<ivy-module version="1.0">
    <info organisation="org.apache" module="chained-resolvers"/>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency org="commons-lang" name="commons-lang" rev="2.6" conf="default"/>
        <dependency name="test" rev="1.0"/>
    </dependencies>
</ivy-module>

As we’d expect, the Ivy file declares this module to be dependent on the two libraries it uses: commons-lang and test. Note that we didn’t specify the org for the dependency test. When we exclude org, Ivy assumes it is in the same org as the declaring module. (in this example, it’s org.apache).

The Ivy Settings

The settings are defined in the ivysettings.xml file located in the settings directory of the project. Below are its contents, followed by an explanation of what it’s doing.

<!--
   Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
   or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
   distributed with this work for additional information
   regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
   to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
   "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
   with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at

     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

   Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
   software distributed under the License is distributed on an
   "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
   KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
   specific language governing permissions and limitations
   under the License.
-->
<ivysettings>
  <settings defaultResolver="chain-example"/>
  <resolvers>
    <chain name="chain-example">
      <filesystem name="libraries">
        <artifact pattern="${ivy.settings.dir}/repository/[artifact]-[revision].[ext]" />
      </filesystem>
      <ibiblio name="ibiblio" m2compatible="true" />
    </chain>
  </resolvers>
</ivysettings>

The settings tag

This tag initializes Ivy with some parameters. Here only one parameter is set, the name of the resolver to use by default.

The resolvers tag

The resolvers section defines the list of resolvers that Ivy will use to locate artifacts. In our example, we have only one resolver named chain-example, which is unique in that it defines a list (hence a chain) of resolvers.

The resolvers in this chain are:

  • libraries : It is a filesystem resolver, so looks at a directory structure to retrieve the artifacts. This one is configured to look in the repository sub directory of the directory that contains the ivysettings.xml file.

  • ibiblio : It looks in the ibiblio Maven repository to retrieve the artifacts.

That’s it, we have just configured a chain of resolvers!

Walkthrough

Step 1: Preparation

Open a shell (or command line) window, and go to the src/example/chained-resolvers directory.

Step 2: clean directory tree

On the prompt type: ant

This will clean up the entire project directory tree and Ivy cache. You can do this each time you want to clean up this example.

Note

In almost all examples, we provide a clean target, as the default target. Since most examples use the same Ivy cache, you will clean the whole Ivy cache each time you call this target.

Cleaning the Ivy cache is something you can do without fear (except for performance): it’s only a cache, so everything can be (and should be) obtained again from repositories. This may sound strange to those coming from Maven 2 land. But remember that in Ivy, the cache is not a local repository and the two are completely isolated.

Step 3: run the project

Go to chained-resolvers project directory. And simply run ant.

[ivy@apache:/ivy/chained-resolvers/chainedresolvers-project]$ ant
Buildfile: /ivy/chained-resolvers/chainedresolvers-project/build.xml

resolve:
[ivy:retrieve] :: Apache Ivy 2.5.0 - 20170619071546 :: http://ant.apache.org/ivy/ ::
[ivy:retrieve] :: loading settings :: file = /ivy/chained-resolvers/settings/ivysettings.xml
[ivy:retrieve] :: resolving dependencies :: org.apache#chained-resolvers;working@apache
[ivy:retrieve] 	confs: [default]
[ivy:retrieve] 	found commons-lang#commons-lang;2.6 in ibiblio
[ivy:retrieve] 	found org.apache#test;1.0 in libraries
[ivy:retrieve] downloading https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/commons-lang/commons-lang/2.6/commons-lang-2.6.jar ...
[ivy:retrieve] ............................. (277kB)
[ivy:retrieve] .. (0kB)
[ivy:retrieve] 	[SUCCESSFUL ] commons-lang#commons-lang;2.6!commons-lang.jar (2644ms)
[ivy:retrieve] downloading /ivy/chained-resolvers/settings/repository/test-1.0.jar ...
[ivy:retrieve] .. (1kB)
[ivy:retrieve] 	[SUCCESSFUL ] org.apache#test;1.0!test.jar (2ms)
[ivy:retrieve] :: resolution report :: resolve 8852ms :: artifacts dl 2648ms
	---------------------------------------------------------------------
	|                  |            modules            ||   artifacts   |
	|       conf       | number| search|dwnlded|evicted|| number|dwnlded|
	---------------------------------------------------------------------
	|      default     |   2   |   2   |   1   |   0   ||   2   |   2   |
	---------------------------------------------------------------------
[ivy:retrieve] :: retrieving :: org.apache#chained-resolvers
[ivy:retrieve] 	confs: [default]
[ivy:retrieve] 	2 artifacts copied, 0 already retrieved (278kB/9ms)

run:
    [mkdir] Created dir: /ivy/chained-resolvers/chainedresolvers-project/build
    [javac] /ivy/chained-resolvers/chainedresolvers-project/build.xml:58: warning: 'includeantruntime' was not set, defaulting to build.sysclasspath=last; set to false for repeatable builds
    [javac] Compiling 1 source file to /ivy/chained-resolvers/chainedresolvers-project/build
     [java] standard message :example world !
     [java] capitalized by org.apache.commons.lang.WordUtils : Example World !
     [java] upperCased by test.StringUtils : EXAMPLE WORLD !

BUILD SUCCESSFUL
Total time: 12 seconds

We can see in the log of the resolve task, that the two dependencies have been retrieved (2 artifacts) and copied to the Ivy cache directory (2 downloaded).

Also notice that the run Ant target succeeded in using both commons-lang.jar coming from the ibiblio repository and test.jar coming from the local repository.

Going further

This very simple example helps us see how to set up two resolvers in a chain. The chain resolver’s reference documentation is available for those who would like to know all the features offered by this resolver.

Below are a few more interesting things worth knowing about chain resolvers. After reading them, go ahead and try tweaking this example using your new wealth of knowledge!

  • a chain is not limited to two nested resolvers, you can use as many as you want

  • by setting returnFirst="true", you can have a chain which stops as soon as it has found a result for a given module

  • by setting dual="true", the full chain will be used both for module descriptors and artifacts, while setting dual="false", the resolver in the chain which found the module descriptor (if any) is also used for artifacts